Saturday, April 17, 2010

Family and Disaster Preparedness

When disaster strikes it will greatly impact the family life. The impact itself will take from in the separation of the family members, disability, death, relationship tension, reduced of coping mechanism, and family conflict. According to the north Carolina Cooperative Extension, think and plan before a disaster usually helps family members react wisely to the emergency. Familes should work together to identity and collect the resources which are needed to meet basic needs during and after disaster. When people feel prepared, they cope better.

Friday, April 16, 2010

Big number of corpse from disaster and the risk of communicable desease

Death due to natural disaster is generally caused by dull trauma. Big number of corpse within short period in disaster area can cause fear of epidemic, however there is not any proof yet declaring that those corpse increase the risk of post-disater epidemic. When death occurs immediately after disaster, the human corpse does not cause epidemic. The infection sources are usually from the survivor than those who died due to disaster. Death due to communicable disease, pathogen organism could not survive in a dead body except on some cases that needs special treatment such as death due to cholera or dengue.

How does individual respond to a disaster

1. Immediate individual response ( 24 hours ) Following disater :
  • Tense, worried, panic
  • Glued, absent-minded, shocked, do not believe it
  • Happy or euphoria,
  • Tired, confused
  • Anxious, crying, isolated, withdrawal
  • Feel guilty
2. First until third week post disaster
  • Worried, alert, sensitive, easily angry, difficult to sleep
  • worried, very sad
  • Re-experiencing the event
  • Sad
  • Remaining positive reactions: expect or think about future, involved activities for help and relief
3. More than three weeks after the disaster
Reaction shown can be permanent and it is indicated with :
  • Tired
  • Feel Panic
  • Continuous sadness, pessimistic and unrealistic thinking
  • Do not conduct activities, isolated and withdrawal
  • Anxiety which is indicated with physical signs such as palpitations, dizzy, tired, queasy, headache, etc.
4. Response after disaster within the period of more than three weeks
  • Some survivors can get acute mental disorder. This may occur from few weeks to several months following the disaster
  • Form or disorder includes : acute reaction to stress, sorrow and grieve, diagnosed mental disorder, adaptation disorder

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Post disaster activity includes recovery

Post disaster activity includes recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruntion.
Activity on post disaster stages aims the recovery process of the effected community by re-functioning the facilities and infrastructures as it was. At this stage we must consider that rehabilitation and reconstruction should fulfill the disaster principles; physical rehabilitation is a must but psychological rehabilitation such as fear, trauma or depression has to be handled also.

Besides that, disaster will effect cruelly the most vulnerable groups like children, women, the elderly and people with physical limitations who need particular attention. Disaster will also give tremendous impact on the health of effected areas. Number of communicable diseases may increase, particularly infectious disease caused by water and soil. In addition, increasing cases of mental illness can be observed. therefore, the comprehensive and sustainable approaches are needed to cope with physical health ( free from physical illness ) and mental health.

Living in vulnerable areas should give us some pressure that we should prepare for such disasters as well as possible. Good and sustainable planning also will make us think rationally in facing disaster situation. This thinking enables to minimize victims and other possible impacts. The community and government need to fully aware that we live in prone area, therefore disaster may srike anytime, suddenly. Disaster mitigation or risk reduction and its anticipative actions are absolute to live side by side with disasters. It also takes strong political will of government to prioritize disaster mitigation program by conducting risk assessment, early warning and preparedness to face disaster and other socialization activities to the community.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Deseases relate to population density

Measles, the increasing risk of measles case on post-disaster depends on the measles immunisation coverage of the inhabitants, especially to children under age 15. A dense living environment condition such as refuge area may enable the spread of measles. To prevent the epidemic not to occur it take higher measles immunisation coverage. After the tsunami, 35 measles cases were found in North Aceh and continued sporadic cases all over Aceh area although mass immunisation campaign had been conducted.

Meningitis, caused by Neisseria meningitidis and spread from human to human, especially in a dense living environment. Many cases and deaths caused by meningitis as reported occurred to refugees in Aceh after tsunami; however accurate prophylaxis antibiotic treatment may hamper the spread.

Acute Respiratory Infection ( ARI ) is a disease that often causes high number of sickness and death to refugees, especially children under age 5. Poor acces to health service and insufficient availability of antibiotic can increase the mortality risk caused by ARI. The risk factor to refugees may also increase due to the circumstances; they generally saty in a dense living environment, contaminated by smoke and dust, sleep in a same room and have bad nutrition. As reported that SARS is the major case and cause the highest death toll to refugees after tsunami in Aceh.

Monday, April 12, 2010

Deseases relate to water

Diarrhoea, may occur due to contaminated water supply and is often reported after flood disaster and in the refuge area. One example is when flood disaster occurred in Bangladesh in 2004. Diarrhoea epidemic was found for more than 17,000 cases at that time. Same thing also happened in West Bengal in 1998 where cholera epidemic caused more than 16,000 cases. The risk of diarrhoea epidemic on post-disaster is higher in developing countries than in developed ones. In Aceh province, Indonesia, rapid health assessment was conducted for inhabitants in the city. 85% of inhabitants who drunk water from unprotected wells suffered diarrhoea in the last two weeks.

Hepatitis A and E, can spread through faecaloral spreading, and relate to poor access to safe water supply and sanitation. Hepatitis A is generally endemic in developing countries. Children are often contaminated yet they may from their immune at young age. So, in area like this, the risk becomes lower. In endemic area, hepatitis E epidemic often occurs after heavy rain or flood. This desease is not generally serious and may heal itself, but for pregnant women the mortality level can increase to 15%. After the tsunami in December 2004 in Aceh, hepatitis A and E cases were found, but fortunately the epidemic did not occur.

Leptospirosis, is a zoonosis desease that can spread through skin contact and mucous membrane with water, humid area or mud that had been contaminated by rat's urine. Flood can help the spreading of this organism and cause epidemic like in Taiwan in 2001.

Sunday, March 21, 2010

What are stress and trauma symptoms?

Stress symtoms
  • Elevated heart beat
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Difficult to concentrate, worried, withdrawal
  • Fast breathing
  • Pain without cause
  • Dizzy
  • Muscle Pain
  • Tired and lack of energy
  • Absent-minded or blank
Trauma symtomps
  • Difficult to forget the past
  • Anxious and worried to deal with environment changing
  • Difficult to concentrate and blank
  • Withdrawal from social life
  • Insomnia
  • Nightmares
  • Irritable
  • Over alertness
  • Diminished interest or feeling
  • Feel strangers to other people

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

What is s disaster

Disaster is :
  1. Catastrophe caused by human on nature that causes damage and destruction so that it needs assistance from other people to recover
  2. Catastrophe that take extra energy ( extraordinary ); more than response to normal emergenccy

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

What is trauma?

Trauma is a psychologically upsetting experience that produces an emotional or mental disorder or otherwise has lasting negative effects on a person's thoughts, feeling or behavior.
What can cause trauma?
Trauma can be caused by :
  1. Natural disasters
  2. War
  3. Rape
  4. Abuse
  5. Terrorism
  6. Accident

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

How to treat patient of post-traumatic syndrome?

There are some methods to overcome pos-traumatic syndrome :
  1. deep breathe exercise; remembering the event while taking deep breathes. It can be done until the anxiety is disappeared although still remembering the traumatic event.
  2. Separated mind: patient trained to separate mental disturbance due to trauma with anxiety ( which is occurred after it ).
  3. EMDR ( Eye Movement Desensitization resproccesing )

Patients who have suffered for years from anxiety or distressing memories, nightmares, insomnia, abuse or other traumatic events can now gain relief from a revolutionary new therapy called EMDR ( Eye Movement Desensitization resproccesing ). Research shows that EMDR is rapid, safe and effective. It will improve the flow of irreguler neurotransmitter in order to give balancing.

4. Relaxation by exercising yoga, etc. to create relaxing situation.
5. talking about positive things;
- Taking lesson learnt
- Feeling lucky to have the experience
6. Improve relationship with other people; sharing, ventilate thought and feelings to others
can reduce pain
7. Sharing experience with peers: how to survive and adapt with the catastrophe
8. Special psychosocial intervention
- Trauma counseling
- Grieve counseling
- Anticipation counseling
- Crisis counseling
- Counseling to solve problem
9. Taking medication as suggested by doctor as prescribed

Thursday, February 11, 2010

What are stress and post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) ?

Stress is a state of physiological or psychological strain caused by adverse stimuli, physical, mental, or emotional, internal or external, that tend to disturb the functioning of an organism and which the organism naturally desires to avoid. Post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is an emotional illness that develops as a result of a terribly frightening, life-thretening, or otherwise highly unsafe experience.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010


Affect : The emotional tone a person expresses. A person's affect may be appropriate or in appropriate to the situation.

Antacid : A substance that counteracts or neutralizes acidity, usually of the stomach

Anxiety : A feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by physical symptoms such as palpitations, sweating, and feelings of stress.

Aspirin : Belongs to a class of medications called non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and are widely used to treat fever, pain, and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Aspirin is known chemically as acetyl salicylic acid often abbreviated as ASA.

Bipolar disorder : A mood disorder sometimes called manic-depressive illness or manic-depression that characteristically involves cycles of depression and elation or mania.

Cholera : A devastating and sometimes lethal disease with intense vomiting and profuse watery dairrhea leading to dehydration which, unless immediately treated, may be fatal.

Monday, January 4, 2010

Disaster Management, Preparedness and Disability

Four group are more vulnerable towards disaster: women, children, people with disability and elderly people. To give understanding about disaster vigilance towards those four groups, PIDA ( Pusat Informasi Difabel Aceh ), Aceh Disability Information Center is an information center for those with physical limitation.

This organization is supported by handicap International and DPO ( Disability People Organization ). To support the socialization program and as information resources, PIDA in collaboration with DPO POTA and Djati Radio hold a participative radio program focusing on disaster risk reduction. The program is expected to give knowledge to the community, especially radio listener, on the importance of having such knowledge so that they will be able to reduce their vulnerability and improve their vigilance towards disaster. Moreover, this program aims to help people who are included in those four vulnerable group categories.

Ironically, among these vulnerable groups, persons with disability are the one who will get the most impact when disaster occurs. They will face difficulties in many ways especially when they try to rescue themselves. This is not concerning only persons with disability, but also persons without physical disability. This situation will worsen if not enough specific information is previously given. When a disaster occurs, most part of the community will experience a great panic, and this must be avoided, especially by those concerned with physical limitation.

PIDA's activity will strengthen the coordination and network among DPOs to achieve common understanding in various cases, especially with the support from many parties and by trainings. With the existence of radio programs on disaster risk reduction, DPO members will gain knowledge and new skills, specifically in using mass media for promotion. Additionally mass media can be used to socialize rights fulfillment of person with disability. This activity focuses on the partisipation of DPOs in encouraging independence to run radio program, and will develop leadership skill of DPO members. Person with disability will be informed by their representative through radio on the vigilance when a disaster strikes as well as how to reduce their vulnerability when facing dangerous situations. So by this way it is expected that the concerned group ( person with disability, women, children and elderly people ) will have equal opportunity to survive and be safe from danger.

Sunday, January 3, 2010

Youth Disaster Response Organization is Formed

Indonesia is a country with high potential of disasters. Based on data from Crisis Cope Center, ( Ministry of Health ), from 2006 until june 2009. there was an increase in the frequency of disaster occurrence in Indonesia. In 2006, there were 162 disasters recorded, 456 in 2008, and 204 by june 2009. While the number of victims in 2006 was recorded with 7,618 death. In 2007 they were 766, and 337 people in 2008. By June 2009, 233 people died.

Victims died because disaster from year to year cannot be minimized. But it is possible to improve the situation with better prevention measures, mitigation and preparedness. To help disaster mitigation, Indonesian Health Department formed an association of Youth Disaster Response Team ( Dasipena ) spread all over Indonesia. Therefore it takes readiness of all parties especially young generations to participate.

The launching of the Youth Disaster Response Teams ( Dasipena ) which are trained with simulations is expected to help the population when it is necessarry. This program has been carried out by central and local governments, all health personnel and also community partisipation.

"The Youth Disaster Response Team aims to mitigate each disaster and to help people cope in cataclysm to recover quickly as it should be" , said Minister of Health Siti Fadilah Supari in Monas, Jakarta. Then she added: " Quick response can prevent us from contagious disease caused by disaster like flood. Dasipena trained groups may improve the preparedness of government and community to face disaster."

In Indonesia, the creation of the fisrt Youth Disaster Response Team was announced officially on May 5th 2008. They raised over 1,600 people. The second Dasipena team was formed in Semarang, Central Java on July 31th 2009 and trained 4,500 people. And then in Surabaya, East Java ( August 19th 2008 ), Denpasar, Bali ( October 14th 2008 ), and Bandung, West Java ( December 20th 2008 ) with respectively 5,000, 1,500, and 2,000 people trained. Last group is formed in Banjarmasin South Kalimantan and gathered 2,000 people. Dasipena will be organized in four more province including South Sulawesi, South Sumatera, North Sumatera and Aceh this year, with at least 28,300 participants around the country.

Saturday, January 2, 2010

Health Service is on Alert For 24 hours

When a Bomb blasted last July at JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels many parties were busy, not only Police Department but also Health Service of Jakarta the capital. During the incidence, a number of helath officer teams and ambulances were provided for 24 hours.

To give help for victims of bomb blast in Mega Kuningan Jakarta Selatan, Health Service of DKI Jakarta also provides referred hospitals within an emergency organization called Ring I and Ring II.

Hospitals that have been prepared are MMC Hospital, Jakarta Hospital, and Medistra Hospital as Ring one. The next step was to coordinate the readiness of ambulance for transportation and treatment for avacuated victims at some local government hospitals ( RSUD ), government hospitals, private hospitals such as RSUD Tarakan, RSUD Pasar Rebo, RSAL Mintohardjo, RSP Pertamina, RSUP Fatmawati, RS Tebet, RSCM, RSPAD Gatot Subroto as hospitals ring two.

So far there have been 53 people who have received treatment. From all of the victims; 39 were treated at MMC hospital, one at Pertamina Hospital, 10 at Jakarta Hospital and 2 at Medistra Hospital. Six people died during the blast and later, three in hospitals.

At the time of this emergency, the head of Health Service of DKI Jakarta, Dien Emmawati stated that her office was ready to assist with the implementation of handling the health, medication and evacuation of the victims due to bomb blasts. " We are on alert for 24 hours to help the haelth division in relation with the bomb blast in Jakarta."

Friday, January 1, 2010


Earthquake, flooding, forest fire, landslide, tsunami. Indonesia is one of the most exposed countries to all kinds of disasters. Some of which can take heavy toll on human life but also damage health facilities.

For instance, the tsunami in aceh and the earthquakes in Nias and Yogyakarta have together damage approximately 715 health infrastructure. Thus, the damage facilities lost their capacity to provide health services.

Whether these disasters are natural or unnatural when they cannot be prevented, they must be faced. Our immediate reactions and the challenges that arise are of the highest importance: preparedness and mitigation helps save lives. Community health wokers are always on the first line when a disaster strikes.

The HM12 is dedicated to this very important issue: Disaster Management and Preparedness.
Triage, psychological care, communicable disease prevention after s disaster, etc. We have gathered technical, social and medical information to be used in case of.

We all hope never to have to use them as it would mean a disaster happened but at least, you and the community health wokers are ready to face a disaster and help to save lives. Disaster Management Preparedness needs the involvemetn of everyone: from the children to the elderly and from the decision makers to the health wokers.